By Daniel C. Snell

A spouse to the traditional close to East deals scholars and basic readers a accomplished evaluate of close to japanese civilization from the Bronze Age to the conquests of Alexander the good. Covers the civilizations of the Sumerians, Hittites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Israelites and Persians areas specific emphasis on social and cultural historical past Covers the legacy of the traditional close to East within the medieval and glossy worlds presents an invaluable bibliographical consultant to this box of research

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In some areas, mostly in the river valleys, the former independent kingdoms were annexed as provinces of a conquering kingdom. This process was clear in Lower Mesopotamia and culminated in the annexation by Babylonia under Hammurabi (1792–1750) of the rival kingdoms of Eshnunna and Larsa, which had previously annexed Isin and Uruk, and Mari. Also Assyria developed from a city-state (Assur) to a regional power, structured in a series of provinces and finally (fourteenth–thirteenth centuries) encompassed all of Upper Mesopotamia.

After the end of the Kassite dynasty, and after the brilliant reign of Nebuchadnezzar I (1125–1104), the kingdom suffered from Elamite and Assyrian forays, and from nomadic infiltration of the Arameans along the corridor between the Tigris and the Zagros and later also of the Chaldeans along 16 Mario Liverani the lower Euphrates. But the main problem was the disruption of the irrigation system, bringing about a demographic and economic decline. The central power was unable to follow the Assyrian model and recover control of the whole area.

Research in Syria and southeast Turkey has only begun to alter the picture (Willcox 1999). Many sites have provided archaeological evidence for early ‘‘founder crops’’ with the larger size, restricted dissemination mechanism, and morphological changes that mark them as domesticated. For the Near East the founder crops were emmer and einkorn wheat, barley, lentils, peas, chickpeas, and bitter vetch. Domesticated emmer wheat and barley from southern Levant sites such as Jericho (7500 B C E )1 and Netiv Hagdud (8260–7800 B C E ) were increasingly joined by early domestic grains from sites in other regions: Tell Abu Hureyra on the Euphrates in Syria (einkorn, emmer, and barley 7700 B C E , domestic rye possibly as early as 10,000 B C E ), Tell Aswad near Damascus (emmer and barley from 7800–7600 B C E ), and in southeast Turkey, Cafer Ho¨yu¨k (einkorn, emmer, and barley 7500 B C E ), C ¸ ayo¨nu¨ (einkorn, emmer, and barley 7300–7200 B C E ), and Nevali C ¸ ori (einkorn 7200 B C E ).

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