By Eugene H Kaplan
Portrays the ecology and formation of coral reefs and describes many of the animals that inhabit the reefs of southern Florida and the Caribbean
Read or Download A field guide to coral reefs of the Caribbean and Florida : a guide to the common invertebrates and fishes of Bermuda, the Bahamas, southern Florida, the West Indies, and the Caribbean coast of Central and South America PDF
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Extra info for A field guide to coral reefs of the Caribbean and Florida : a guide to the common invertebrates and fishes of Bermuda, the Bahamas, southern Florida, the West Indies, and the Caribbean coast of Central and South America
Lethal gas pressure ranges from 100 to 200 m m Hg, but levels in the range of 4 0 - 5 0 m m Hg may increase the mortality of fish on a chronic basis (Colt, 1986). Gas supersaturation must be measured in situ. A maximum criterion of 20 m m Hg is suggested for fish and crustaceans. Dissolved oxygen is n o t a good measure of total gas supersaturation. 2. Values outside of this range may indicate pollution or excessive freshwater runoff. Animals that typically live in full-strength seawater can be very sensitive to changes in pH outside the normal range.
3 |1 It ! 01 I 0 5 10 i I 15 20 ;, 3'0 35 Temperature (C) Fig. 7. 2 and a salinity of 35 g/kg. The loading rates are significantly less than for freshwater due primarily to the high pH and toxicity of un-ionized ammonia. These loadings will be even more conservative at lower salinities except at high elevations. Guidelines for maximum loadings for holding (A), production (B) and research (C) conditions, as a function of temperature and animal size. 0 mg/1. Oxygen consumption is assumed equal to that for a fed rainbow trout for production and research and an unfed trout for holding.
As a result, this book will neglect all reactions of carbon dioxide in water. This is equivalent to assuming that pH is constant and carbon dioxide gas is an inert gas. For more information on the impact of metabolic carbon on water chemistry and water flow, see Colt and Orwicz (1991 a). While the reuse ratio increases at high temperatures, the actual carrying capacity decreases. This is better demonstrated by looking at the total amount of dissolved oxygen that can be used before the un-ionized ammonia criterion is exceeded.