By W. B. Crow (Auth.)

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Internal organs probably regenerate in many invertebrates and lower vertebrates. Gonads are replaced in crustaceans, but not in insects. Lungs of salamanders are regenerated if a small portion of their tissue be left. T i s s u e - c u l t u r e shows t h a t most tissues can be kept alive and many will grow indefinitely, outside the body. Snails will regenerate their heads, crustaceans their limbs, fishes their fins, newts and lizards their tails and jaws. In mammals and birds regeneration is mainly confined to the healing of wounds.

METAPHASE of heterotype resembles t h a t of ordinary division except t h a t bivalents are there, each with two centromeres (one maternal, one paternal). —Centromeres move apart, each dragging its two chromatids with it ; whether it is the maternal or paternal which goes to a given pole is an equal chance. —Normally follows ; it resembles ordinary karyokinesis except t h a t : (1) I t follows immediately the heterotype without the intervention of a resting stage and usually without a preceding telophase ; (2) The chromosomes are haploid.

On the cut surface a rim or cushion of embryonic tissue known as callus is formed and this is the source of the adventitious roots which are emitted, and which establish the cutting as a new plant. Only as many buds are left on the cutting as are required to form the main branches. Very many plants in cultivation are reproduced extensively by cuttings. Herbaceous plants are cut in summer, before flowering, but fruit trees and shrubs usually in autumn, a t the time of leaf fall, when conditions are most favourable for callus and adventitious root formation.

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