By David Klotz

Hibis Temple, tucked away within the distant Khargeh Oasis, comprises the longest huge hymns to Amun-Re ever carved in hieroglyphs. those non secular texts, inscribed throughout the reign of Darius I, drew upon a wide number of New country resources, and later they served as resources for the Graeco-Roman hymns at Esna Temple. As such, the hymns to Amun-Re from Hibis are excellently fitted to learning Egyptian theology throughout the Persian interval, at the eve of the intended "new theology" created by way of the Graeco-Roman priesthood. This new learn, the 1st wide observation at the 5 liturgically attached hymns, positive factors new translations with precise notes. The e-book additionally considers dominant theological issues found in the texts, together with the concept that of "Amun in the Iris."

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2, far left. 68 Cf. t-serpent,” which must be singular. Lorton considers the w/y, plural/singular interchange for that passage alone (SAK 21 [1995]: 179–80, n. v). w of col. t) should be read as singular (“who is in”), and the hieratic parallel (P. Berlin 3056, II,1) writes imy. w by itself was understood as singular by the Hibis scribes. ” As the text describes the solar deity, this epithet should not be understood as a reference to Amun as the source of the Nile (Ba 4), but instead as a rather clever statement concerning his primevalness.

158 See Hornung, The Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife, p. 142, Fig. 86. For the Mendesian ram, see my note to the Great Amun hymn, col. 17.  B It is Amun’s eyes, rather than Amun himself, that emit light (cf. Chapter 7).  The “sound” (wDA) aspect of this awakening alludes to the story of Osiris’s death and dismemberment, after which his limbs are reattached and he regains his sexual energy, allowing him to impregnate Isis or give birth to the morning sun, and thereby to recreate himself.

83 CT VII, 201e–g. 84 CT IV, 4e. ” Atum is specifically tied to the word aAa in P. Bremner-Rhind, where he narrates how after masturbating “the semen (aAa) fell into my mouth. ” This imagery works particularly well in the Invocation Hymn, since the previous strophe mentioned Re illuminating (sti) the two lands.  As noted above, this is closely related with the engendering form of Amun-Kamutef (“Bull of his Mother”), the ejaculating bull who begets himself. This mytheme, as found at Hibis, is not a far cry from the Ptolemaic Ogdoad theology: in both cases, Amun himself creates the primordial chaos (Hibis: the Nun-waters; Ptolemaic: the Ogdoad), which in turn gives birth to the sun, which in both cases is Amun himself.

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