By Dan Benardot

Writer and world-renowned activities nutritionist Dr. Dan Benardot has utilized his large learn and paintings with elite athletes, together with Olympic gold medalists, to provide an explanation for the hyperlink among nutrients and athletic functionality. for this reason, complicated activities food offers the main subtle and beneficial foodstuff info out there.

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Sympathetic stimulation can markedly constrict the AA (constricts EA also, but not as much), which will decrease PGC and thus GFR. On the other hand, angiotensin II (AII) is considered to preferentially constrict the EA (Jackson, 2006b; Rose and Post, 2001). Constriction of the EA causes PGC to increase, with a resultant rise in GFR despite a fall in renal blood flow. Clinical data also suggest that this is the case (Jackson, 2006b). If a patient, diabetic for example, has protein loss in the urine, one way to reduce this protein excretion would be to reduce PGC.

The descending limb of this loop is permeable to water but not solutes. By contrast, solutes are pumped out of the ascending limb but not water. This loop creates a countercurrent of luminal fluid flow, and the capillaries follow this loop and act as a multiplier for this countercurrent flow. Briefly, because of the differential characteristics of the descending and ascending limbs, the interstitium of medulla has an increasingly higher osmolality. The interstitium in the cortex of the kidney approximates blood osmolality (about 300 mOsm/kg), whereas the interstitium of the inner medulla may be as great as 1200 mOsm/kg.

First, higher extracellular K+ is thought to directly increase the K+ concentration in the principal cells and thus increase its secretion. Second, elevated plasma K+ stimulates ALDO release, which also increases K+ secretion. (4) Acid–base disturbances: In general, alkalosis increases K+ secretion, typically resulting in hypokalemia, whereas acidosis decreases (at least initially) K+ secretion, resulting in hyperkalemia. There is evidence that H+ directly inhibits the Na+–K+ ATPase (Eaton and Pooler, 2009; Koeppen and Stanton, 2007).

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