By J. F. Parr, B. A. Stewart, S. B. Hornick, R. P. Singh (auth.), R. P. Singh, J. F. Parr, B. A. Stewart (eds.)

From the start of agriculture till approximately 1950, elevated nutrition creation got here virtually completely from increasing the cropland base. considering the fact that 1950, even if, the yield in line with unit of land region for significant plants has elevated dramatically. a lot of the rise in yields was once as a result of elevated inputs of power. among 1950 and 1985, the farm tractor fleet quadrupled, international irrigated region tripled, and use of fertilizer elevated ninefold. among 1950 and 1985, the whole strength utilized in international agriculture elevated 6. nine occasions. Irrigation performed a very very important position within the fast raise in nutrients creation among 1950 and 1985. The world's irrigated land in 1950 totaled ninety four million hectares yet elevated to a hundred and forty million by means of 1960, to 198 million by means of 1970, and to 271 million hectares in 1985. in spite of the fact that, the present price of growth has slowed to under 1 % according to 12 months. the realm inhabitants maintains to extend and agricultural construction through the 12 months 2000 should be 50 to 60% more than in 1980 to fulfill calls for. This persevered call for for foodstuff and fiber, coupled with the pointy decline within the progress fee of irrigation improvement, signifies that a lot of the extra agricultural construction in years yet to come needs to come from cultivated land that isn't irrigated. Agricultural creation may be improved within the arid and semiarid areas simply because those areas make up huge parts in constructing international locations the place populations are quickly rising.

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II. Conservation Tillage Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III. Weed Control ............................................. A. Weed Control with Tillage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Weed Control with Herbicides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Weed Control with Crop Rotations ......................... IV. Water Infiltration, Evaporation, and Conservation ............... A. Infiltration and Runoff . .

A .. Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Type of Conservation Tillage Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . C. Purpose of This Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II. Conservation Tillage Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III. Weed Control ............................................. A. Weed Control with Tillage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Weed Control with Herbicides.

2 a a From Smika (1983). 6 Mg ha-'. c Average of measurements at 1000, 1200, and 1500 hr with a radiation thermometer. 01 (Duncan's multiple range test). processes, especially under field conditions where little or no control over soil wetting by precipitation exists. Laboratory studies by Bond and Willis (1969), Hanks and Woodruff (1958), Unger and Parker (1976), and others have shown that evaporation decreases with increases in mulch thickness. Because mulch material density affects the thickness and surface coverage obtained with a given weight of material, a low-density material such as wheat straw reduces evaporation more effectively than higherdensity materials such as sorghum stubble or cotton stalks.

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