By L. Ho, R. van Leeuwen, P. T. V. M. de Jong, J. R. Vingerling, C. C. W. Klaver (auth.), Frank G. Holz, Daniel Pauleikhoff, Richard F. Spaide, Alan C. Bird (eds.)

Age-related macular degeneration is the commonest reason for the lack of primary imaginative and prescient past the age of fifty in business international locations. Triplication of the variety of affected sufferers is anticipated over the following 25 years. particularly during the last years the traditional of data concerning etiology, chance elements, diagnostics and treatment of this retina disease has considerably grown – this can be coated during this updated multi-authored paintings. except epidemiologically and genetically pointed out danger components either many of the pathophysiological facets together with the position of the supplement method and scientific manifestations together with OCT and angiographic features are sincerely represented. in addition, different healing methods are offered and mentioned, together with confirmed methods equivalent to intravitreal anti-VEGF remedy and seeing-aid platforms, as well as the most recent and upcoming tools within the sector of pharmacology. the quantity is well-illustrated and tables and summaries whole the presentation.

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Neuner et al. 89) per log(year) [266]. Others reported that persons who stopped smoking more than 20 years earlier were not at increased risk of the blinding stages of AMD [267, 268]. Seddon et al. 3 years [148]. 2 Antioxidants The only protective factors for AMD known to date are antioxidants. AREDS showed that a combination of zinc, b-carotene, and vitamins C, and E reduced the risk of progression from intermediate to advanced AMD by 25% [34]. The RS found that an above-median intake of these nutrients was associated with a 35% lower risk of incident AMD [269].

However, its presence has also been reported in the cellular cytosol [162] and the extracellular matrix [163]. 55) carriers of the rs11200638 risk allele compared to noncarriers [164]. Stratified analyses revealed that rs11200638 was significantly associated with CNV but not with GA, and that the causative effect was stronger in Caucasians than in Asians [164, 165]. Various lines of evidence supported the involvement of HTRA1 in AMD. The rs11200638 risk allele has been associated with higher levels of HTRA1 mRNA and protein in some studies [139, 151, 166, 167], although two other studies with larger datasets could not validate this finding in heterologous expression systems [143, 168].

Sarraf D, Gin T, Yu F, Brannon A, Owens SL, Bird AC (1999) Long-term drusen study. Retina 19(6):513–519 42. Sunness JS (2006) Choroidal neovascularisation and atrophy. Br J Ophthalmol 90(4):398–399 43. Sunness JS, Gonzalez-Baron J, Bressler NM, Hawkins B, Applegate CA (1999) The development of choroidal neovascularization in eyes with the geographic atrophy form of age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology 106(5): 910–919 44. Sunness JS, Margalit E, Srikumaran D et al (2007) The long-term natural history of geographic atrophy from agerelated macular degeneration: enlargement of atrophy and implications for interventional clinical trials.

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