By Pietro Luigi Iaia

This booklet examines the English lingua-franca (ELF) makes use of in a corpus of on-line and scripted video-game interactions. whereas learn in most cases explores the playful and technological elements of computer-mediated communique, this research specializes in the techniques of cooperation, language simplification and authentication, lexical creativity and that means negotiation which are often activated in the «community of perform of avid gamers» to facilitate cross-cultural conversations. The scripted exchanges, as a substitute, are tested by way of the ALFA version (Analysis of Lingua Franca in Audiovisual texts), that's devised to investigate into the level to which the non-native contributors’ language diversifications are a part of the multimodal actualisation of the cognitive build of «non-native speakers», to which authors hotel in an effort to steered particular reactions at the a part of the receivers. ultimately, because the members’ turns in either on-line and scripted interactions are visually represented as written messages on reveal, this examine additionally contributes to the improvement of the outline of written ELF adaptations, thus far now not completely explored within the literature.

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To act politely means to “show awareness of another person’s face”, or of the “sense of self that everyone has and expect everyone else to recognize” (Yule 1996: 60). In this sense, speakers are polite when they respect their interlocutors’ face in positive terms, perceiving and treating them as members of the same community – in the cases under analyses, as members of the same guild, for example. From an opposite, negative perspective, instead, participants (generally the high-status ones) may impose their will on the other members.

2008: 35). What is more, it seems to lack the exploration of the psychological, cultural as well as sociological dimensions of gaming – a common criticism to most of the descriptions in game studies. By way of example, the notion of “experience” is not explained from cultural, linguistic or cognitive perspectives but conceived in entertainment terms, only denoting the perception that players have when using video games (Bernal Merino 2006). Actually, it is thought that its description would benefit from the integration with other notions in literature, such as the magic circle already described, for example, in order to provide a definition that would integrate in a cohesive way the different shades of gaming – from the entertainment dimension, to the linguistic, cultural and cognitive ones, accompanying the attention to the effects prompted by the technological and interactive construction of the levels with focuses on the consequences in terms 29 of reception associated with specific types of equivalence in translation, and on the activation of the peculiar state of mind that helps the “conscious step” (Caillois 2011) towards the lands that players populate by means of their avatars.

1) will exemplify the influence of the socio-cultural constructs on the language that senders and recipients use in their utterances, along with the need for a reformulation of the conventional theories concerning human communication, due to the cross-cultural dimension of the interactions. 2 will introduce the selected corpus of video games, as well as the research objectives. 1 The socio-cultural grounds of human communication As illustrated in the previous chapters, language is a social, cultural and ideological means that allows humans to come into contact and communicate their feelings, thoughts and experiences (Halliday 1978).

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