By Loren T. Stuckenbruck

The general public worship of the risen Christ as depicted in John's Apocalypse at once contradicts the guiding angel's emphasis that in basic terms God may be worshiped (Revelation 19:10; 22:8-9). In Angel Veneration and Christology, Loren Stuckenbruck explores this contradiction in mild of angel veneration in Early Judaism.
Stuckenbruck surveys a large choice of Jewish traditions relating to angelic worship and discovers proscriptions opposed to sacrificing to angels; prohibitions opposed to making photographs of angels; rejections of the "two powers"; second-century Christian apologetic accusations particularly directed opposed to Jews; and, most significantly, the refusal culture, common in Jewish and Jewish-Christian writings, in which angelic messengers refuse the veneration of the seer and exhort the worship of God alone.
While facts for the perform of angel veneration among Jews of antiquity (Qumran, pseudepigraphal literature, and inscriptions from Asia Minor) doesn't provide the instant heritage for the worship of Christ, Stuckenbruck demonstrates that the actual fact that safeguards to a monotheistic framework have been issued in any respect throws mild at the Christian perform of worshiping Jesus. the best way the Apocalypse adapts the refusal culture illuminates Revelation's declarations approximately and depictions of Jesus. although the refusal culture itself in simple terms safeguards the worship of God, Stuckenbruck strains how the culture has been cut up in order that the angelophanic components have been absorbed into the christophany. As Stuckenbruck exhibits, an angelomorphic Christology, shared by means of the writer of Revelation and its readers, capabilities to maintain the author's monotheistic emphasis in addition to to stress Christ's superiority over the angels―setting the degree for the worship of the Lamb in a monotheistic framework that doesn't contradict the angelic directive to worship God by myself.

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Extra resources for Angel Veneration and Christology. A Study in Early Judaism and in the Christology of the Apocalypse of John

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New Testament Essays on Atonement and Eschatology (Grand Rap­ ids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1974) 275-84; HOLTZ, "Gott in der Apokalypse," in L'Apocalypse johannique, 247-65, esp. 16; P. , pp. 231-45; Karl Martin FISCHER, "Die Christlichkeit der Offenbarung Johannes," TLZ 106 (1981) 165-72; M. " Introduction 26 examination of the author's appropriation and use of traditions to shape his presentation. B. Eschatology Once eschatology is allowed to shape an approach to the Christology of John's Apocalypse, the analysis is almost invariably confronted by the task of determining what the author perceives as "already" and "not yet" fulfilled in the figure of Christ.

Mohr [Paul Siebeck], 1919) and Ethelbert STAUFFER, Christ and the Caesars, trans. K. and R. Gregor SMITH (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1955) 147-91; and, more recently, John GAGER, Kingdom and Commu­ nity (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1975) 49-57, esp. pp. 51-53; CAR­ NEGIE, "Worthy is the Lamb," 254-6; SCHUSSLER FIORENZA, "The Followers of the Lamb: Visionary Rhetoric and Social-Political Situation," in The Book of Rev­ elation, pp. 181-203; and Mitchell G. REDDISH, "Martyr Christology in the Apocalypse," JSNT 33 (1988) 85-95.

Whatever the connotations of terms such as "(cultic) veneration," "(cultic) devotion," "worship," and "cult," their virtual iden­ tification by HURTADO betrays a certain ambiguity with respect to what both sides of the discussion are attempting to convey. While HURTADO is not con­ vinced that there are any clear signs in Early Judaism of the worship of i n ­ termediaries in a cultic logical setting, ideas in Early Judaism cludes a certain devotion there are others who conclude that angeloreflect a theological development which i n ­ to angelic beings as such.

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