By Claude Boyd, Aaron McNevin

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4 Deep-water intake structure. 5 An excavated fish pond in Thailand. Courtesy of David Cline. shallow, excavated ponds may fill by groundwater seepage. Excavated ponds cannot be drained, and their water levels may fall drastically in the dry season as the water table declines. Nevertheless, small, excavated ponds are important for providing fish for poor, rural farm families in many Asian nations. The most suitable type of pond for aquaculture is the embankment pond constructed by building an earthen embankment around an area in which to store water (Fig.

The eNGOs, however, do not appear to be greatly concerned about the culture of seaweed and molluscs. 4. These general areas of concern are not unlike the list of concerns that eNGOs would have for terrestrial agriculture, or for that matter, most other industries. 4 do not apply equally across all aquaculture species or all production methods. 4 Major issues that concern environmentalists about aquaculture. Land use modifications Wetland alterations, cropland conversion Excessive use of freshwater Water pollution Eutrophication, turbidity and sedimentation, and salinization Excessive energy use and greenhouse gas emissions Wasteful use of fish meal Negative effects on biodiversity Pollution, capture of wild aquatic animals for broodstock, exotic species, genetically modified species, bird and other predator control, entrainment of small aquatic organisms in pumps, spread of diseases to wild populations Antibiotics and other chemicals Antibiotic resistance in organisms, toxicity of certain compounds, residues in aquaculture products Socioeconomic issues Conflicts with other resource users, worker safety and other rights, etc.

Htm 4 Aquaculture, Resource Use, and the Environment a particular location. Water temperature determines whether a site is suitable for coldwater, coolwater, warmwater, or tropical species. Of course water temperature varies seasonably, and at some warmwater sites, it is possible to culture coldwater or coolwater species in winter and tropical species in summer. For example, tilapia can be cultured in summer and rainbow trout can be cultured in winter—although it has ◦ only been done in research—in central Alabama (32 north latitude) in the United States.

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