By Alan Corney

This ebook discusses many advances in optical physic, and is geared toward complicated undergraduates taking classes in atomic physics, or graduate scholars within the fields of lasers, astrophysics, and actual chemistry. The e-book is meant often for experimentalists, and the interplay of electromagnetic radiation with loose atoms is brought utilizing classical or semi-classical calculations anywhere attainable. subject matters mentioned comprise the spontaneous emission of radiation, motivated transitions and the houses of fuel and turnable dye lasers, and the physics and purposes of resonance fluorescence, optical double resonance, optical pumping, and atomic beam magnetic resonance experiments.

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42) into a surface'integral, we obtain The rate at which work is done by the field is now seen to equal the sum of two quite distinct terms. The first represents the rate at which energy flows into the closed volume across the bounding surface. The vector is called the Poynting vector. 5). The second term represents the decrease in the energy stored in the electromagnetic fields within the volume concerned. The quantity may be regarded as the energy density of the electromagnetic field. The Poynting vector N represents the instantaneous rate at which energy flows through unit area, but in a sinusoidal wave E_ and H are rapidly oscillating functions of time and we are generally interested in the average value of N over a complete period.

REVIEW OF CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS 27 We can distinguish two cases of elliptical polarization depending on the sense in which the tip of the electric vector traces out the ellipse. The convention is that if an observer, facing into the approaching wave, sees the ellipse described in a clockwise sense, the polarization is said to be right-handed. 35) at two time instants separated by a quarter of a period, we see that the ellipse is described in a clockwise sense if sin 6 < 0. If sin 6 > 0 the ellipse is traced out anticlockwise and the polarization is said to be left-handed.

19) are of the form: where _ e ,, ^are unit vectors which we assume initially to be in arbitrary directions and £ „ , K0 are complex amplitudes. We adopt the convention that the physical fields are obtained by taking the real part of the complex quantities. 28) and the real part is taken at the end of the calculation. 5 below. 28) into the equations div E = 0 and div H = 0 we find that This means that both E_ and H are perpendicular to the direction of propagation k^, and these solutions to Maxwell's equations therefore describe transverse waves.

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