By Phillip Manning

"Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds" is going behind the curtain of day by day chemistry to discover the atoms that govern chemical methods. In transparent language, this intriguing publication indicates how the interactions among basic components resembling salt and water are an important to lifestyles on the earth and the way these interactions are predestined by way of the atoms that make up the molecules. furthermore, the tales of the scientists whose discoveries formed the trendy global, reminiscent of Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein, are awarded right here in gripping element. Brimming with full-color images and illustrations and more suitable by means of sidebars and a thesaurus, "Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds" permits readers to discover the superb discoveries highlighted during this e-book.

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Extra resources for Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds (Essential Chemistry)

Example text

He could not, however, explain their source. Scientists know now that the lines are caused by elements near the sun’s surface absorbing radiation produced in the sun’s interior. Analysis of spectra such as Fraunhofer lines is called absorption spectroscopy because it deals with atoms capturing a photon that bumps an electron into a higher energy state. Emission spectroscopy uses an external source of energy—heat, radiation, or an 54 atoms, molecules, and compounds electrical current, for instance—to excite the electrons in an atom.

They do not react with other substances easily. This means that they do not gain or lose electrons readily. As early as 1916, Bohr and others suggested that these gases must have energy levels that are filled and can take no more electrons. 1 shows the electron configurations of the noble gases. Scientists now know that Bohr and his colleagues were right. All of the lowest energy shells of every noble gas are filled. Bohr’s electron configurations were a logical outgrowth of his quantum atomic structure.

Iron had an iron nucleus; oxygen had an oxygen nucleus. Thus, the universe 29 30 atoms, molecules, and compounds was composed of electrons and the 92 different nuclei of the elements. That picture would soon change dramatically. Discovery of the Proton Scientists were aware that particles other than electrons might exist. Cathode ray tube experiments had shown that something was moving in the opposite direction of the electrons. This new particle traveled from the positive anode to the negative cathode.

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