By Evguenia Davidova

Drawing upon formerly unpublished advertisement ledgers and correspondence, this research bargains a collective social biography of 3 generations of Balkan retailers. own money owed humanize multiethnic networks that navigated a number of social platforms assisting and opposing quite a few facets of nationalist ideologies.

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Balkan Transitions to Modernity and Nation-States: Through the Eyes of Three Generations of Merchants (1780s-1890s) (Balkan Studies Library, Book 6)

Drawing upon formerly unpublished advertisement ledgers and correspondence, this examine deals a collective social biography of 3 generations of Balkan retailers. own debts humanize multiethnic networks that navigated a number of social structures assisting and opposing numerous facets of nationalist ideologies.

Extra resources for Balkan Transitions to Modernity and Nation-States: Through the Eyes of Three Generations of Merchants (1780s-1890s) (Balkan Studies Library, Book 6)

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The number of protégés is disputed. bağış estimated that only Austria pro­ tected 200,000 and Russia 120,000 Ottoman subjects, but Van den Boogert has suggested that those numbers were much lower – around 2,500 for the entire Eastern Mediterranean. He has also questioned the thesis that berats were instruments of imperialism. Van den Boogert, The Capitulations, 77, 83, 90–92, 105. For a discussion see Murat Çizakça and Macit Kenanoğlu, “Ottoman Merchants and the Jurisprudential Shift Hypothesis,” in Merchants in the Ottoman Empire, eds.

116 Most commonly merchants were both lenders and borrowers. Such was the case of h. Veliko from Shumen. In 1780, he took a 92 k. loan but gave credit of 314 k. 117 The amount of credit varied from 10 to 80 k. and one of his debtors was a bishop. Although he owned a shop and participated in sin­ gle-venture partnerships (two in 1774, one in 1775), it seems that usury was more profitable. Most of the examples suggest that it was around the turn of the eighteenth and the very beginning of the nineteenth century that many Balkan merchants moved to using various credit instruments, which involved poliçe and cambials.

1, Grŭtska korespondentsia (Sofia: Izdatel­ stvo “Gutenberg” 2004), 237–240. , “Grŭtski kodeks na Plovdivskata mitropolia,” SBAN XLI, no. 2, 1946: 230–232. 73 Nikolaĭ Genchev, Vŭzrozhdenskiat Plovdiv (Prinos v Bŭlgarskoto dukhovno Vŭzrazh­ dane) (Plovdiv: Izdatelstvo “Khristo G. Danov,” 1981), 75. 74 For information about trade in honey, butter, and wine in Negotin and Čačak see Arhiv Srpska akademija nauke i umetnosti (Hereafter A-SANU), A-SANU, 700; 8581/1. the fathers, 1780s–1820s 23 The role of the fairs as sites of interregional and international trade was very important.

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