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Na: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 O: 1s2 2s2 2p4 Mg: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 Answers: 1. b 2. a 3. c 4. b 5. c Chapter 5 CHEMICAL BONDING Chapter Check-In ❑ Counting valence electrons ❑ Writing Lewis structures ❑ Forming covalent bonds ❑ Forming ionic bonds ❑ Sharing electrons unequally ne of the most important advances in chemistry during the twentiO eth century was the understanding of the way atoms bond (join together) to form compounds. Atoms either share pairs of electrons between them (a covalent bond), or they transfer one or more electrons from one atom to another to form positive and negative ions, which are held together because of their opposite charge (the ionic bond).

Structural formulas Butane Isobutane H H H H H H C C C C H H H H H H H C C C H H C H H Molecular formulas H H C4H10 C4H10 H Although these two compounds have the same molecular formula (and, therefore, have identical chemical compositions), their structural formulas reveal a difference in the way that the 4 carbons are assembled. Structure is just as essential as composition in organic chemistry. The two varieties of C4H10 are called isomers, meaning that they have the same composition but differing structures.

The strength of ionic bonding, therefore, depends on both the charges and the sizes of the two ions. Higher charges and smaller sizes produce stronger bonds. Table 5-4 shows the approximate radii of selected ions, which have the electronic configuration of an inert gas. The radii are in Å. 68 2+ For ions of the same charge, the ionic radius increases as you go down any column because the elements of higher atomic number have a greater number of electrons in a series of electronic shells progressively farther from the nucleus.

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