By Cullen K.E. (ed.)

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1. 39 Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click Here for Terms of Use. 1 Prefixes for nonmetal-nonmetal compounds Important Memorize the first six prefixes. The systematic names presented for binary nonmetal-nonmetal compounds are not used for hydrogen compounds of group III, IV, and V elements or for water. These compounds have common names which are used instead. Water (H2O) and ammonia (NH3) are the most important compounds in this class. Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds are composed of cations and anions.

If the formula is not known, it may be deduced from the experimentally determined composition. This procedure is possible because once the relative masses of the elements are found, the relative numbers of moles of each may be determined. Formulas derived in this manner are called empirical formulas. In solving a problem in which percent composition is given, any size sample may be considered, since the percentage of each element does not depend on the size of the sample. 50 BEGINNING CHEMISTRY Simplify!

All monatomic anions have names ending in −ide, but there are few anions that consist of more than one atom which also end in −ide, the most important of these are the hydroxide ion (OH−) and the cyanide ion (CN−). Oxyanions consist of an atom of an element plus some number of atoms of oxygen covalently bonded to it. The name of the anion is given by the name of the element with its ending changed to either −ate or −ite. In some cases, it is also necessary to add the prefix per− or hypo− to distinguish all the possible oxyanions from one another.

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