By David Benatar

Larger by no means to were argues for a couple of comparable, hugely provocative, perspectives: (1) getting into life is usually a significant damage. (2) it truly is regularly mistaken to have kids. (3) it really is flawed to not abort fetuses on the previous phases of gestation. (4) it'd be larger if, due to there being no new humans, humanity turned extinct. those perspectives may perhaps sound unbelievable--but somebody who reads Benatar should be obliged to take them heavily.

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In other words, it is worse than the presence of pleasure. But that is because X exists in Scenario A. It would have been better had X had the pleasure of which he is deprived. Instead of a pleasurable mental state, X has a neutral state. Absent pleasures in Scenario B, by contrast, are not neutral states of some person. They are no states of a person at all. Although the pleasures in A are better than the absent pleasures in A, the pleasures in A are not better than the absent pleasures in B. The point may be made another way.

Quadrant () must be negative, because it is bad, and quadrants () and () must be positive because they are good. (I assume that () must be as good as () is bad. That is, if () = −n, then () = +n). Since () is not bad (and not good either), it should be neither positive nor negative but rather neutral.  we add () and () in order to determine the value of A, and then compare this with the sum of () and (), which is the value of B. ³⁵ There are numerous problems with this. For instance, as I shall show in the first section of the next chapter, it is not only the ratio of pleasure to pain that determines the quality of a life, but also the sheer quantity of pain.

What I have to say here applies only to the never existent.  ∼ Why Coming into Existence Is Always a Harm might be objected that because () is part of the scenario under which this person never exists, () cannot say anything about an existing person. This objection would be mistaken because () can say something about a counterfactual case in which a person who does actually exist never did exist. Of the pain of an existing person, () says that the absence of this pain would have been good even if this could only have been achieved by the absence of the person who now suffers it.

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