By Maria C. Linder

Copper has lengthy been referred to as necessary to residing platforms, partly via its basic position in electron shipping and respiratory. through the years into the current, its involvement in an ever expanding variety of methods in every kind of organisms has develop into obvious, and new and interesting vistas of its roles in such components because the valuable fearful procedure, and in humoral features, are showing at the horizon. even though the biochemistry of this point has no longer been studied approximately up to that of many others, a for­ midable volume of labor has been performed. It has hence been a problem to supply a precis of what has been came upon that gives either breadth and intensity. My target has been to aim to be as accomplished as attainable, inside of a few barriers. i've got attempted to supply uncomplicated info and simple facts that are meant to remain precious for a very long time. The aim has additionally been to interpret the place we at the moment stand in our wisdom of the constitution, functionality, rules, and metabolism of Cu-dependent strategies and sub­ stances, in particular proteins. hence, i've got attempted to make this a resource publication for ancient in addition to present details on all points of copper bio­ chemistry, and a precis of our present wisdom of copper-dependent proteins and tactics. many of the learn on copper has been performed on vertebrates, specifically mammals. This has performed a job within the association of the book.

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C) Amounts absorbed as a function of dose at all doses. Absorption of Copper from the Digestive Tract 21 these steps have not sufficiently advanced for us to speak about the molecular aspects involved, considerable work has been done to study some aspects of overall intestinal transport (especially for rat duodenum), in ligated in vivo segments or in everted gut sacs incubated in vitro. For obvious reasons, similar studies have not been done with humans or larger vertebrates. Previous reviews of intestinal copper absorption include those by Bremner (1980), Cousins (1985), and Camakaris (1987).

These include protein and some amino acids (presumable acting through the same mechanism), but apparently not histidine (Wapnir and Balkman, 1990) and methionine (Strain and Lynch, 1990), an excess of which may reduce absorption or body copper content, respectively. Na +, citrate, phosphate, and other small molecules and ions, including notably oxalate (which inhibits iron and calcium absorption), also stimulate copper absorption, as do chelating agents such as EDT A and nitrilotriacetate. Other dietary factors may have inhibiting effects, including phytate and fiber.

2~8, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam). , 1981 ). Data supporting this concept are given in Table 2-7. There is a 9-fold increase in intestinal metallothionein concentration [measured indirectly by a Cd(II)-binding assay] and a 7-fold increase in metallothionein mRNA with a 36-fold increase in dietary zinc. A similar increase in dietary Cu has no such effect, although it may have produced a slight increase in metallothionein. (There was no change in mRNA ). It is well established that the affinity of this small divalent-metal-binding protein for copper is much greater than it is for zinc.

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