By Christoph Guger, Brendan Allison, Günter Edlinger (auth.), Christoph Guger, Brendan Z. Allison, Günter Edlinger (eds.)

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are swiftly constructing right into a mainstream, around the world study pastime. With such a lot of new teams and tasks, it may be tough to spot the easiest ones. This booklet summarizes ten major tasks from all over the world. approximately 60 submissions have been obtained in 2011 for the hugely aggressive BCI study Award, and a global jury chosen the head ten. This short offers a concise yet rigorously illustrated and entirely updated description of every of those tasks, including an creation and concluding bankruptcy by means of the editors.

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As such, large positive values indicate easy to classify trials, values with small absolute values represent uncertain trials, and negative values denote incorrect decisions (more precisely, the values on the y-axis represent the distance of the trial’s features from the separating hyperplane, with positive/negative values indicating that the trial’s features are on the correct/incorrect side (Grosse-Wentrup and Schölkopf 2012)). 3 and 95 %, respectively, there is a distinct temporal structure to each subject’s performance.

It is worth mentioning a small but important difference between frontal measurements and recordings over motor regions. Often, the scalp over frontal brain areas is free of hair, unlike over motor regions. Since an efficient coupling between light sources or detectors and the scalp is of great importance, hair that obscures the optics can lead to poor signal quality (Coyle et al. 2007). Furthermore, the hair roots might absorb reflected light, further reducing the detected signal level. Not only different tasks and measurement locations have been explored, but also numerous strategies in processing the data prior to the classification.

3 % for the combination of fNIRS data and biosignals (Zimmermann et al. 2013). The extent to which fNIRS signals contained components that were due to physiological effects and vice versa was not systematically analyzed. The employed HMM framework was in principle capable of accounting for possible correlations between signals. This gives rise to the speculation that the classifier implicitly revealed the most informative cortical signal components from fNIRS data by making use of the physiological signals.

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