By Jacqueline Jumpsen

'This book's aim is to supply a concentrated assessment (morphological, biochemical and practical) of mind improvement and to exemplify the position of lipids within the vital developmental occasions and the ideas which are possibly altered via physiological alterations in mind lipid composition. person chapters comprise: mind development and vulnerability; mind lipids; Lipids and crucial fatty acids in mind improvement; crucial fatty acid synthesis and delivery to the mind; influence of vitamin on fatty acid composition in mind; Glycolipids and gangliosides; Neurotransmitters; and Relevance, reflections and destiny directions.'

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1984). In these studies, development of the retina and visual function are tested through the measurement of visual acuity, which is presently the only noninvasive, standardized, clinical visual function test for use with nonverbal individuals (cf. Carlson, 1993). Optimal visual acuity depends on normal development of the central retina and cone photoreceptors (Neuringer and Connor, 1987). , and more recently by Innis (1994), the incorporation of α-linolenic acid at 1% energy supported visual acuity in the developing retina.

Thus, visual acuity is associated primarily with retinal function, but also indicates some measure of function of other areas in the visual system. Essential Fatty Acids and the Retina As cellular differentiation and active synaptogenesis occur, photoreceptor biosynthesis is also taking place. In photoreceptor outer segments (rod outer segments), the level of 22:6n-3 can account for up to 50% of all fatty acids, depending on the phospholipid class (Fliesler and Anderson, 1983). Since the highest levels of 22:6n-3 are found in the retina as well as the cerebral cortex, accretion of this fatty acid, or lack thereof, Copyright © 1995 AOCS Press could markedly affect retinal development and visual acuity.

5% of energy (Health and Welfare Canada, 1990). Bourre et al. (1989b), have indicated that a diet deficient in 18:3n-3 (sunflower or peanut oils) affects enzyme activities for Na+-K+-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase, electroretinogram wave amplitude, and learning capacity in rats. Provision of n-3 fatty acids reverses these functional impairments. 4% of caloric energy to avoid deficiency). ” In this regard, Health and Welfare Canada (1990) has recommended a ratio of between 4:1 and 10:1 for infant feeding.

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