By Professor of Classics Joseph Roisman

Many vital matters surrounding Alexander the Great's conquest have captured the curiosity of students and basic readers for the reason that antiquity. This publication, that's meant as an informative spouse for students and nonspecialist alike, acquaints us with those concerns and their present interpretations, and opens up new instructions of research because it confronts them. It covers a wide variety of themes: the ancients' representations of the king in literature and paintings; Alexander's relatives with Greeks, Macedonians, and the peoples of Asia; the army, political, sociological and cultural facets of his campaigns; the exploitation of his biography and the myths approximately him through historic philosophers to argue an ethical element or through sleek groups in and outdoors the Balkans to confirm or contest ethnic and nationwide identities.

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We return, as always, to our historical, literary texts. Within the last ten years, the study of Alexander historiography has produced several substantial monographs. There has been some suggestion that such an output is excessive, because any historical commentator on one source might be perceived as covering much the same ground as another. 55 Yet such criticism is unjustified. Despite their similarities, the Alexander historians differ from each other in content and methodology in substantial ways.

It also often served as the model for others: men (generals, kings, and emperors), heroes (Heracles, Achilles, and the Dioscuri), and gods (Dionysus/Bacchus, Ares/Mars, Helios/Sol, even Zeus/Jupiter). So when-as often-only a head survives, physiognomy alone is no secure guide. Even attributes can be ambiguous. Is a head fitted for solar rays (fig. LO With these cautions in mind, let us turn to the images. 2. Alexander's Lifetime (ca. 340-323 Be) Other ancient authors report a softer version of the 'edict' than Apuleius.

However despite the additional information, the latter accounts, as with Arrian's, place Philotas in a compromising position, even though Curtius himself appears to be ambivalent on Philotas' guilt or innocence. 3) Philotas is told of a conspiracy and given names. But an alternative, and more disturbing report is offered by Plutarch, who not only paints a picture of Alexander's long term suspicion and surveillance of Philotas, but more importantly suggests that the hipparch was not actually given intelligence of a plot (Alex.

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