By David N.-S. Hon

This quantity emphasizes the starting to be desire for wooden items with complex engineering houses. It information the basic ideas of cellulose know-how and provides present recommendations to enhancing the elemental chemistry of lignocellulosic fabrics. The paintings: discusses the low-budget use of cellulose derivatives in numerous commodities; highlights the chemical amendment of wooden by means of tools reminiscent of etherification, esterification and thermoplasticization; considers contemporary growth within the lignocellulosic liquefaction of wooden; and extra.

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JJ, 169 (1977). 32 Meshitsuka and Isogai 57. Y. Matsumoto, A. Ishizu, K. Iiyama, and J. Nakano, Mokuzai Gakkaishi 28, 249 (1982). Y. Matsumoto, A. Ishizu, and J. , 81 (1986). Y. Tsutsumi, A. Islam, C. D. Anderson, and K. V. Sarkanen, Holzforschung 44, 59 (1990). Y. Matsumoto, A. Ishizu, and J. Nakano, Mokuzai Gakkaishi 30,74 (1984). N. Habu, Y. Matsumoto, A. Ishizu, and J. Nakano, Holzforschung 44, 67 (1990). Y. Matsumoto, N. Habu, K. Minami, A. Ishizu, and J. Nakano, Proc. Fifth Int. Syrnp. , Raleigh, North Carolina, 1989, p.

43. -M. Chang, E. B. Cowling, W. Brown, E. Adler, and G. Miksche, Holzforschung 29, 153 (1975). 44. B. Bezuch and J. Pokin, Cellulose Chem. Technol. 12, 473 (1978). 45. T. Yamasaki, S. -L. Chen, J. S. -M. Chang, Proc. Int. Symp. Wood Pulping Chemistry, Stockholm, Vo!. 3, 1981, p. 34. 46. P. F. Ritchie and C. B. Purves, Pulp Paper Mag. , 48(12), 74 (1947). 47. E. Adler and S. Hemestam, Acta Chem. Scand. 9, 319 (1955). 48. A. Isogai, A. Ishizu, and J. Nakano, J. Wood Chern. Technol. 7, 463 (1987).

Glu. 4) 'Detennined from Sepharosc CL-6B gel filtration curves. ( ) Based on total sugar content in LCC. ~ 26 c. Meshitsuka and Isogai Linkages Between Lignin Structural Units It is well known that lignin structural units are linked to each other with various types of linkages, namely ~-0-4, a-0-4, 4-0-5 (diaryl), ~-5, ~-~, 5-5 (biphenyl), and ~-1. The three types are ether bonds and the rest are carbon-carbon bonds. Table 3 shows the approximate frequencies of these linkages based on the data of Adler [56], of which ~-0-4 is the major one and ~-5 is of secondary importance in softwood lignin.

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