By Carmen Jany

The Chimariko language, now extinct, was once spoken in Trinity County, California. This reference grammar, in response to info accumulated via Harrington within the 1920's, represents the main entire description of the language. Written from a functional-typological standpoint this paintings additionally examines language touch in Northern California exhibiting that grammatical characteristics are frequently shared between genetically unrelated languages in geographically contiguous areas.

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Obstruent voicing is often absent in native languages of North America and occurs only as a recent development (Mithun 2004c). Labialized consonants are very common in Western North America (Mithun 2004c). Table 5: Phonemic characteristics of Chimariko and its immediate neighbors Language Chimariko Wintu¹ Hupa² Shasta³ Language Family isolate Penutian: Na-Dene: Hokan: KarukWintuan Athabaskan Shasta: Shastan Consonants 33 30 (3 marginal) 34 (6 marginal) 19 Stop series pl, asp, glott pl, asp, glott pl, asp, glott pl, glott Obstruent voicing no yes (only front) no no Back velar q yes yes yes no Voiceless lateral no yes yes no Retroflex ṭ yes no no no Gemination no no no yes Labialized no no yes (restricted no consonants to čʷ, čʷ’, xʷ) Vowels 5 6 (marginal æ) 3 4 Phonemic vowel no yes yes yes length pl = plain; asp = aspirated; glott = glottal ¹ see Pitkin 1984:24-39 ² see Golla 1960:24-38 ³ see Silver 1966:22-49 Except for Shasta, Chimariko and its immediate neighbors have large consonant inventories with three series of stops.

4) The initial stem vowel always surfaces in the third person pronouns. 5) In general, no front vowels /e, i/ occur after /qʰ/ and /čʰ/. 4. In the first person singular patient forms and the second person plural agent forms the stem-initial front vowels are backed, hence e -> o and i -> u. This is illustrated in the following phonological rule: [-back] -> [+back] / qʰ, čʰ_______ . Some deviations from the forms in Table 4 are found in the data, as the following example shows. 1. Indian-DEF 3-kill-DER-ASP ‘The boy told it, they killed the boy, the people, the Indians killed him’ In example 1, the stem-initial vowel /e/ surfaces with the third person marker hrather than /i/ as expected with i-stem verbs.

4 Diphthongs. The low-high and mid-high rising diphthongs, [ai, ei, oi, ui], are found in roots and as a result of affixing. There is also a fronting diphthong [ui]. In the data, the diphthongs appear either as a sequence of two vowels or as a vowel followed by a glide. While the front high vowel [i] occurs as either a vowel or a glide in these sequences, the back high vowel [u] always appears as a glide. Given that the two variants, vowel-vowel and vowel-glide, can be found in different instances of the same word, as in ‘sister’ in the example below, they are assumed to have the same phonetic and phonological basis.

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