By Eiju Watanabe (auth.), Norihiko Tamaki M.D., Kazumasa Ehara M.D. (eds.)

Computer expertise has constructed remarkably within the box of neurosurgery in past times 10 to twenty years. nice achievements were made lately in neuroimaging suggestions and desktop expertise for neuronavigation, from frameless, armless platforms to robot microscopes. inside the current quantity are the entire papers offered on the foreign Symposium on Computer-Assisted Neurosurgery and chosen papers offered on the sixth Annual assembly of the japanese Society of desktops in Neurosurgery, which have been held in Kobe, Japan, on January 24-26, 1997. This quantity is a complete description and evaluate of present technical advert­ vancements in computer-assisted neurosurgery, with a unique specialise in complex intraoperative neuroimaging, quite a few neuronavigation method, robot microscopes, and methods for preoperative and intraoperative surgical making plans utilizing high-power workstations with 3-dimensional software program. We exhibit our because of the individuals for his or her participation and cooperation, and to Springer-Verlag for private and technical tips in publishing this paintings. We in actual fact wish that this quantity will give a contribution to bettering neurosurgical expertise and outcomes.

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The system needs to know the patient's orientation in 3-D space relative to the cameras. For this purpose BrainLAB developed special low-profile markers-to reduce skin movement-that are adhered to the patient's skin before starting the diagnostic imaging. These markers consist of two parts, an adhesive socket that is attached to the patient's scalp near the area of projected exposure and draping and an 8-mm spherical aluminum marker which is inserted into the sockets for preoperative CT (Figs. 1,2).

In this particular case we believe the robotic microscope increased safety by providing continuous intraoperative guidance. At no time did we have to stop the surgical procedure for verification of position. Case 2 A 35-year-old woman in apparent good health was admitted to an outside facility after an acute episode of headache and anomia. A diagnostic evaluation revealed two Advanced Neurosurgical Navigation 51 Fig. 3a,b. A 35-year-old woman with a right parafalcine and a left thalamic mass. The right parafalcine lesion (a) was approached initially with the robotic microscope.

During neuronavigation, the microscope's actual focal point serves as a virtual probe; therefore, no external pointing devices are needed [2]. The Surgical Procedure To use the robotic microscope the following steps are required: image data acquisition, surgical planning, intraoperative registration, and intraoperative navigation by the robotic microscope during the surgical procedure. 46 L. Zamorano et al. Image Data Acquisition The advent of digital imaging such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) has resulted in images with exquisite detail.

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