By David Rosenthal

David Rosenthal is among the top individuals to the philosophical examine of realization. This quantity gathers jointly his paintings at the topic from the previous twenty years, and represents the definitive presentation of his influential conception of cognizance as higher-order concept. of the essays look right here for the 1st time; there's additionally a considerable new creation, drawing out the connections among the essays and highlighting their implications.

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We speak interchangeably about red sensations and sensations of red, but it makes no nonmetaphorical sense to talk about tomatoes of red. Similar considerations apply to properties that are special to bodily sensations. Knives and aches may both be dull, but the dullness of a knife, unlike that of an ache, has to do with the shape of its edge. 3 Things are slightly less straightforward with intentional properties, since items other than mental states can exhibit intentionality. Speech acts and works of art, for example, can be about things and can have propositional content.

In the present section I take up various general questions about the adequacy of the non-Cartesian account; in section III I address issues that pertain specifically to sensory qualities and to subjectivity. One especially notable feature of our presystematic view of consciousness which the Cartesian conception seems to capture perspicuously is the close connection between being in a conscious state and being conscious of oneself. An account in terms of higher-order thoughts has no trouble here.

So, if these higherorder thoughts all had to be conscious, we could invoke them only to explain introspective consciousness. For only when we are introspectively aware of a mental state are we also aware of our higher-order thoughts. But higher-order thoughts are not automatically conscious, any more than other mental states are. They are conscious only when we have a yet higher-order thought that we have such a thought. So there is no difficulty about using higher-order thoughts to explain not only reflective or introspective awareness, but also what it is for a mental state just to be in our stream of consciousness without our also consciously focusing on it.

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