By Kwame Anthony Appiah

"A extraordinary and humane philosophy for our pressured age."—Samantha energy, writer of A challenge from Hell

Drawing on a vast diversity of disciplines, together with heritage, literature, and philosophy—as good because the author's personal adventure of lifestyles on 3 continents—Cosmopolitanism is an ethical manifesto for a planet we percentage with greater than six billion strangers.

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Reidel Publishing Company. © 1987 by D. 28 JOSEF FUCHS ness of actual behavior and of freely perfonned life. The conscience is, consequently, throughout understood as being an authority governing the conduct of life. Today we are more aware than in the past of the fact that the conscience is not the only authority governing the way life is conducted. There are other authorities which determine our conduct in life and which do not calion the freedom of the human being. Behavioral research shows, for instance, that certain behavior in humans and animals is based on biological factors4 which pretend to be something of an ethical order but which are not ethical orientation; astonishing cases of 'selfless' behavior within personal relationships and society are not necessarily ethical and conscientious acts - certainly not with animals, and also not with human beings.

THE PHENOMENON OF CONSCIENCE 35 Object-orientation is basically the tendency to more or less identify conscience with practical reason. Conversely, the formulation which grants that the moral subject is constituted in the conscience is clearly subject-orientated. This subject-orientation logically precedes the object-orientation. 2 Subject-Orientated Conscience - The Basic Phenomenon In order to comprehend the true essence of the conscience-phenomenon one is obliged, as already indicated above, to return to the matter concerning the human being's deep-seated self-consciousness.

Goiser, Gewissen und objektive Sittenordnung. Zum Begrif/ des Gewissens in der neueren katholischen Moraltheologie, Vienna 1975. 4 Cf. H. ', in J. ), Das Gewissen. Vorgegebene Norm verantwortlichen Handelns oder Produkt gesellschaftlicher Zwiinge? Dusseldorf 1979,9-18. 5 Cf. J. Fuchs, Das Gewissen, op. , Foreword. 6J. W. Glaser, 'Conscience and Super-Ego: A Key Distinction', in Theological Studies 32 (1971), 30-47. THE PHENOMENON OF CONSCIENCE 47 7 Thomas Aquinas, In Eth. , 1. , n. 1131. Cf. also the essay by D.

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