By Paul Skillicorn

".....THIS TECHNICAL research IS aimed toward the subsequent AUDIENCES:
(a) validated fish farmers who want to scan with duckweed as a fish feed, and employees of agricultural extension companies concerned as a fish culture;

(b) scientists of aquaculture learn institutes who could start up pilot operations and utilized learn on duckweed;

(c) employees of bilateral and multilateral donor firms who may perhaps advertise investment for duckweed learn and pilot operations; and

(d) wastewater experts in governments and donor companies who may possibly advertise wastewater remedy crops in line with duckweed along with fish culture....."
[from the publication of the foreword via Harinder S. Kohli]

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Extra resources for Duckweed Aquaculture: A New Aquatic Farming System for Developing Countries

Sample text

Such feed is usually high in carbohydrate because natural food is high in protein and because carbohydrate is less expensive than protein. Fish farmers must adjust feed inputs in response to key environmental variables. Fish feed consumption varies with fish size and water temperature. Carp may not feed at all during the coldest months, but in the summer can eat as much as their own weight daily and even waste food. Uneaten or poorly digested feed results not only in lost productivity, but also contributes to oxygen depletion.

Routine harvesting of duckweed-fed carp began approximately six months after the Mirzapur polyculture pond was stocked. Biweekly harvesting was the preferred pattern, following a simple protocol to take the largest fish (75 to 100 percentile) and the smallest (Oto 25 percentile) in each species. The rationale is the assumption that the largest fish will have a declining growth rate and that the small fish are simply poor performers. This protocol was particularly difficult to follow with respect to mrigal which, because of their small size, became entangled in the nets.

And an increase in the offering price had little effect on supply. A more active model in which duckweed farmers are provided with technical assistance and investment capital, in addition to a floor price offer, is likely to produce better results. Without guarantees on either side, however, duckweed producers retain little pricing leverage and remain vulnerable to arbitrary termination, while fish farmers are vulnerable to supply uncertainties. Two-unit linkage Paired linkage between a duckweed farmer and fish farmer, reinforced by formal short-term agreements specifying mutual obligations with respect to price and supply, is more satisfactory, both from a productivity as well as an equity point of view.

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