By M. Patterson
The AmericanIndian tradition consisted of particular customs and traditions that regulated every thing from who could lead the tribes to who could marry in the tribes. They stored detailed, unique bills in their tribal histories simply because they foresaw the significance of passing down their histories.
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The AmericanIndian tradition consisted of particular customs and traditions that regulated every thing from who could lead the tribes to who could marry in the tribes. They stored targeted, exact bills in their tribal histories simply because they foresaw the significance of passing down their histories.
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10 (7 x 30), of thoracic vertebrae, 360, and of lumbar Page 16 vertebrae, 150. 3 % of the lumbarvalues very similar to those observed by Haglund and colleagues (1988). These examples demonstrate that vertebra loss due to carnivore activity is much less than that characteristic in sites with probable cannibalism, as we discuss later in this chapter. " The carnivore damage was attributed to coyotes, dogs, and/or wolves. There was also some rodent damage. Rodent gnawing is distinctive: it consists of multiple and largely parallel gouged grooves that appear rather like saw marks in rough-cut lumber (figs.
Only a handful of modern claims for each of the world's major geographic regions are eyewitness accounts, but even so, these are enough to propose that cannibalism has occurred everywhere at one time or another. Many reports of it can be found in Gary Hogg's useful survey, Cannibalism and Human Sacrifice (1966). An earlier book, Ewald Volhard's Kannibalismus (1939), is probably the most extensiveif not a very criticalreview of the ethnographic literature on the topic. Volhard examined hundreds of articles and books dealing with the peoples and cultures of Africa, Oceania, Asia, and the Americas.
Hammer-and-anvil use frequently leaves abrasions, here referred to as anvil abrasions, that are formed mainly when a bone slips on a stone anvil at the moment of impact. A rough hammerstone can produce abrasions too, but our experience suggests hammerstone impact slippage leaves a crushed, smeared, or even dented surface more often than it leaves the fine, multiple, parallel striations of anvil abrasions (see examples in chapter 3, especially figs. 49). Prehistoric cutting of bone is distinctive and can be recognized by a number of features (Walker 1989).