By Luke R. Dalla Bona, Roy L. Carlson
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Both the Plains and the Intermontane West are possible sources for this change, although the strong similarities between Banff II and the Goatfell complex point more directly to the latter. SUMMARY The Banff I and Banff II complexes both appear to support a strongly local mountain valley hunter- Early Human Presence in Banff National Park gatherer adaptation by people already familiar with the area and its resources. Evidence of movement or contact beyond the area of the local seasonal round is limited, although the introduction of fine siliceous sandstone from the eastern slopes just south of the Banff area suggests consistent contact with other mountain valley adapted groups to the south during Banff II complex times.
Bifaces exhibit broad shallow bulbar scars. Biface preform edges were heavily ground as is evident from recovered fragments and from biface thinning flakes, a large proportion of which exhibit heavy grinding on (low angle) striking platform remnants. Large flake blanks produced in this process were used as simple tools and subsequently discarded or marginally retouched, or were worked into unifacial formed tools such as perforators and side scrapers. Large bifaces were the end product of bifacial core reduction with these "exhausted cores" worked into spear points or bifacial knives.
Cultural and faunal material were found in all major strata except the lowest zone (Zone I), which consisted of large sandstone boulders in a silt/clay matrix. Radiocarbon dates show that the earliest fauna was deposited between 10,700 BP and ca. 9000 BP in a silty clay with larger sandstone clasts. This depositional unit, Zone II, is divided into two subzones. Subzone Ha dates 10,700 to 10,000 BP, and contains the fluted point assemblage described elsewhere (Fladmark, this volume, Fladmark, Driver, and Alexander 1988).