By Edward W Glazier; Wiley InterScience (Online service)

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For example, factors associated with small particulates can dramatically affect climate models; compensatory behaviors associated with habitat changes can significantly affect fish habitat models; and “minor” prey consumed in small space-time windows can significantly affect trophic dynamics. Application of ecosystem models to fishery issues has induced many challenges and few great successes. 2. 2. Score card for using models to address ecosystem management questions. Issue Grade Comment Bycatch impacts A We are reasonably successful at predicting direct effects of fishing in general.

Methods from other disciplines may be useful for EAFM modeling. While not typically considered in traditional fisheries management, these include: fuzzy logic, credibility theory, artificial intelligence, gaming theory, network analysis, decision theory, and a variety of theories and methods used in economics. 1. Categories of single-species (SS), multispecies (MS), and ecosystem (ES) models. Model type Predator- Environmental Biological prey and/or lower Age Spatial interactions feedback trophic levels structure structure MS fishery technical interaction models SS models with unidirectional drivers × × MS production models Age/size-structured MS models × × × × Aggregate trophodynamic ES models × × × Age/size-structured trophodynamic ES or individual-based models × × × × × × × × × × × × The interplay between ecosystem modeling and policy is very important.

H. Balazs, I. H. Dutton, N. J. Nichols, and I. ) P1: SFK/UKS P2: SFK/UKS BLBS076-BM BLBS076-Glazier QC: SFK/UKS T1: SFK April 12, 2011 15:1 Trim: 244mm×172mm NAO GoM temp GB temp SNE temp MA temp Physical metrics Groundfish land Elasmobranch land Trawl income No vessels Human metrics Total biomass Mean Wt Groundfish biomass Other biomass Elasmobranch biomass Pelagic biomass Sp. richness Sp. evenness 65 70 Biotic metrics 75 80 85 90 95 Time period Ternary matrix of ecosystem indicators for US fisheries on Georges Bank.

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