By Albert D. Helfrick

This booklet provides basics and the newest suggestions of electric spectrum research. It specializes in tools and methods used on spectrum and community research, instead of idea. The ebook covers using spectrum analyzers, monitoring turbines, and community analyzers. choked with functional examples, the e-book offers options which are frequent in sign processing and communications applications, Read more...

summary: This publication offers basics and the newest recommendations of electric spectrum research. It makes a speciality of tools and methods used on spectrum and community research, instead of conception. The ebook covers using spectrum analyzers, monitoring turbines, and community analyzers. jam-packed with useful examples, the booklet provides recommendations which are general in sign processing and communications functions, but are tough to discover in so much literature. Key positive aspects. offers quite a few functional examples, together with real spectrum analyzer circuits. guide on the best way to use spectrum analyzers, monitoring turbines, and community analyzers. End-of-chapter questions, which make the ebook appropriate as a college-level textual content

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Extra info for Electrical Spectrum & Network Analyzers. A Practical Approach

Sample text

The accuracy of the center frequency display is a function of not only the voltmeter, in the voltmeter method, or the frequency counter, in the frequency counter method, but the frequency accuracy of the second local oscillator and the IFs. 53 3 . 1 Frequency Display The actual input frequency of a two-conversion spectrum analyzer is ^in — fl fl fl\IF (3-1) where f is the frequency of the first local oscillator, f2 is the frequency of the second local oscillator, a n d / I F is the frequency of the second IF.

The hyper-abrupt diodes tend to have a tuning curve that is closer to being linear. 5%, a linearizing circuit is required. What a linearizing circuit does is provide a transfer function that is the opposite of the tuning curve. That is, if the tuning curve flattens at the highfrequency end, the linearizing circuit expands the input voltage at the highfrequency end. This can be achieved in a number of ways; one suitable circuit is shown in Fig. 2-14. Because the nonlinearity of a VCO does not follow any simple mathematical function such as a logarithm or simple polynomial, a simple circuit element such as a diode cannot be used to create the linearizing circuit.

This characteristic gives rise to another name for the diode: the " s n a p " diode, because of its characteristic to snap off. This very rapid turnoff generates energy at a large number of harmonics of the driving voltage, and a range of these harmonics are filtered and called a frequency " c o m b " because of the appearance of the spectrum. Figure 3-4 shows a comb generator using the 1-MHz crystal oscillator, step-recovery diode, a low-pass filter, and a high-pass filter. The output of this comb generator is used to provide the low-level, RF input to a passive diode 1 2 0 0 MHz 7 0 0 MHz Stop Recovery Diode - " C o m b " Output Low-Pass Filter High-Pass Filter Figure 3-4 A block diagram of a comb generator for providing a large number of well-known harmonics of a crystal source.

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