By Tamer Becherrawy
Chapter 1 Prologue (pages 1–22):
Chapter 2 Electrostatics in Vacuum (pages 23–59):
Chapter three Conductors and Currents (pages 61–95):
Chapter four Dielectrics (pages 97–125):
Chapter five detailed innovations and Approximation equipment (pages 127–151):
Chapter 6 Magnetic box in Vacuum (pages 153–194):
Chapter 7 Magnetism in topic (pages 195–232):
Chapter eight Induction (pages 233–261):
Chapter nine Maxwell's Equations (pages 263–282):
Chapter 10 Electromagnetic Waves (pages 283–335):
Chapter eleven mirrored image, Interference, Diffraction and Diffusion (pages 337–387):
Chapter 12 Guided Waves (pages 389–412):
Chapter thirteen detailed Relativity and Electrodynamics (pages 413–442):
Chapter 14 movement of Charged debris in an Electromagnetic box (pages 443–465):
Chapter 15 Emission of Radiation (pages 467–490):
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Extra resources for Electromagnetism: Maxwell Equations, Wave Propagation and Emission
Thus, UE is the interaction energy of the dipole with the field E. 7. 7b). ∇)Eα . ∇) Eα(r). E + pE) = − ∂αUE. 48] Thus we find the general expression F = − ∇UE. 49] Here UE is a function of the coordinates r(x, y, z) of the center O of the dipole and ∇ is the vector differential operator with respect to these coordinates. For instance, if E points in the direction of Ox (E = Eex), it acts on the dipole p to orient it in the direction Ox (thus, px > 0 and py = pz = 0). 48] gives the components of the resultant force Fα = px ∂αE.
Thus, we may add, subtract or write equalities of quantities of the same type. It is not valid to add a vector to a pseudo-vector or write the equality of one component of two vectors without having the other components equal. dr requires that UP and the energy in general be true scalars. 8. Electric charges in nature Although matter is neutral on the macroscopic scale, it is comprised of charged and neutral particles. 602 189 2 × 10−19 C. 3). The stable particles, which are the building blocks of matter, are the proton of charge +e, the electron of charge −e, and the neutron (which is neutral as its name indicates).
For instance, if E points in the direction of Ox (E = Eex), it acts on the dipole p to orient it in the direction Ox (thus, px > 0 and py = pz = 0). 48] gives the components of the resultant force Fα = px ∂αE. For instance, if E is an increasing function of z (∂xE = ∂yE = 0 and ∂zE > 0), the resultant force has one component Fz = px ∂zE > 0. Thus the force F points toward the increasing field. We have shown that the field and the potential, which are produced at large distances by the distribution of charges qk located at points rk are the superposition of those of a single charge q = Σk qk and an electric dipole p = Σk qkrk.