By Michael W. Doyle
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And Samuel Huntington. Political Order in Changing Societies (New Haven. 1968). " Comparative Politics 3. 3 (1971). These concepts are examined in my Chapters 8 and 9 below. Historical Sociology oj Empires The Peripheral Threshold of Subordination Had Athens all the metropolitan characteristics described above and been surrounded only by states resembling Sparta, would Athens have been the ruler of an empire? Spartan resistance suggests not, and it suggests more widely that metropolitan sources of empire appear to be insufficient to explain empire.
Others in the metrocentric school favor a difference in motives. Imperialist states desire to "swarm"-theirpeople, trade, or investments-or to change the status quo, or to promote the special interests of slaveholders. 14 Objectless expansion, financial imperialism, the search for raw materials, and the clamor for glory are the special motives that separate imperial states from other states. Neither school, I shall suggest, fully captures the metropolitan sources of imperialism. Thucydides, in his discussion of the Athenian imperialists, focuses I I.
Historical Sociology of Empires ~enfwas'formally necessary to all league policy. All members formally agreed to follow Sparta in defensive wars and in those nondefensive wars to which the members agreed. "11 Furthermore, only Sparta could call a meeting of the league, the league being nothing more than a series of bilateral alliances with Sparta. 12 Yet Spartan hegemony was not unbridled. The Peloponnesian League, which originated in the Hellenic League formed to resist Persian aggression, retained a defensive character.