By Roar Gudding, Atle Lillehaug, Oystein Evensen
Fish farming, in seawater and in freshwater, in cages, tanks or ponds, makes an ever-increasing and critical contribution to the construction of aquatic nutrients in lots of areas of the area. over the past few many years there was major development and growth within the aquaculture region, characterised via intensified construction and the exploitation of many new species. Aquaculture has to be a sustainable bio-production, environmentally in addition to economically. affliction prevention to be able to decrease losses, and using antimicrobials is essential during this standpoint. Vaccination has, in many years, develop into crucial procedure for sickness prevention in aquaculture, and potent prophylaxis in response to stimulation of the immune procedure of the fish is key for extra improvement of the industry. �Read more...
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Extra resources for Fish Vaccination
2005; Bravo and Midtlyng, 2007). Most fish vaccines are inactivated vaccines, and many vaccines provide acceptable protection against disease. However, the fish are not protected against infection, so the vaccines do not provide sterile immunity. Vaccination as a Preventive Measure 15 As excretion of microorganisms is significantly reduced, the effect of vaccination is that disease prevalence and incidence is lower in vaccinated groups compared with unvaccinated ones. However, the degree of disease prevention may vary and vaccines may therefore be used with various degrees of success.
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Bazin and A. Govaerts). San Diego, Academic Press, 3–62. Press, C. and Lillehaug, A. 1995. Vaccination in European salmonid aquaculture: a review of practices and prospects. Br Vet J 151: 46–69. O. W. 1966. T. A. A. Good). Gainesville, FL, University of Florida Press, 199–208. J. W. 1965. Oral immunization of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) against an etiologic agent of “red mouth disease”. J Fish Res Bd Can 22: 713–19. B. R. 1973. History of Sabin attenuated poliovirus oral live vaccine strains.