By J.J. Picot, D.D. Kristmanson

Introduced to the technical points of forestry aerial spraying within the mid-1970's, we have been instantly inspired via the complexity of the method of offering pesticide to foliage. at the moment, there has been a lively public debate in New Brunswick concerning the ecological and public h~alth affects of the yearly spray software for the regulate of defoliation of spruce and fir bushes by means of the spruce budworm. The woodland is critical to the province and alterations to the proven techniques of budworm keep an eye on may have significant monetary implications. A rational debate required trustworthy information regarding the mechanics of the spraying procedure. there has been a necessity to provide lacking details as to required pesticide software premiums, atomizer functionality, off-target waft and deposit, and the consequences of climate and plane working elements. We have been invited to begin a study application during this area through New Brunswick woodland administration officers, and what follows during this e-book is a logical and quantitative description of the general technique in keeping with our personal examine and that of others over the intervening years. After a brief creation to aerial spraying, we commence (Chapter 2) through describing wooded area stands by way of their interplay with suspended atmospheric particulate fabric carried alongside by way of the wind and liable to deposition on foliage. We introduce foliage simulators and their use in measuring the deposit of sprayed pesticide on foliage, the "biological interface" among pest and pesticide.

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Note that on some aircraft, atomizers are mounted close enough to the fuselage to to be in the zone where air velocity is higher than the aircraft airspeed [see potential flow around a submerged object, Prandtl and Tietjens (1957)]. This can cause a reduction in droplet sizes at that point of generation). Tunnel length must be sufficient to guarantee that droplet breakup action is finished before drops arrive at the counting and measurement position, and tunnel diameter must be large enough to prevent droplets from striking the tunnel walls ahead of this position.

84 M /S E C - ---0. M/SEC TBM .. 2 AGT . --::::1 I ---------~--------~----~~~~~----~~--------"-------. 4 . 6 --.. 4 1-R : 52 : 5 1: 53 : Comparison of Grumman TBM and Cessna 188 (AG-Truck) vortex decay, neutral conditions (TBM at 77 mis, AGTruck at 49 mls airspeed). Copied from Wallace (1988) by kind permission of the author. j::. 7 - 2 T BM . RUN 4 1-R: TBM . AGT . RUN 52: UN 5 1: TBM. AGT. 2 M/S EC Ti m e (Sec) v x x 0 + 6 + B 10 Comparison of Grumman TBM and Cessna AG-Truck (188) vortex descent (TBM at 77 mis, AGT at 49 m/s airspeed).

Chasin eds. , STP 1112, ASTM, Philadelphia PA, pp 271-290. Sundaram, A. (1995): Pesticide Formulations, Chapter 46 of Forest Insect Pests in Canada, lA. H. , Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Science and Sustainable Development Directorate, Ottawa. S. Dennison (1986): Mass transfer from water droplets under simulated free-fall conditions, Atm. Env. 20, pp 1039-1045. 1 Aircraft in Use Various aircraft types have been used in aerial spraying [Quantick(1985a)]. 1. 1 gives details of type, size, weight, payload, of spray aircraft registered in Canada in 1996.

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