By Catherine Raven

Discover the technological know-how of forestry, from bushes and shrubs grown for advertisement and medicinal use, to their impression at the atmosphere and society.

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3 Flowers use color, scent, and shape to attract pollinators to the stamen, where pollen is produced, and the stigma, the receptive area where pollen grains germinate. We will discuss the special features and adaptations of the following six genera of forest hardwoods: 1. poplar (Populus) 2. maple (Acer) 3. beech (Fagus) 4. oak (Quercus) 5. hickory (Carya) 6. birch (Betula) There are only two common forest species of birch in North America. Yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) is an important component of both the beech-birch-maple-hemlock and the 50 Forestry central hardwood zones.

Recall that the conifers dominate the coldest forested regions of the world, the taiga, or the boreal forest. Conifers tend to be bigger, older, and taller than broadleaved trees. They favor diffuse roots over taproots. They are better able to withstand water shortages and strong winds. In this chapter, we’ll identify the major coniferous trees of the forest and discuss their adaptations. We will closely examine eight groups of Coniferophyta (coniferous plants) that are common in North America.

Angiosperms have a dense wood with vessels to suck water at very fast rates, but when water freezes in the winter, they drop their leaves and rest until spring. The angiosperms are a family of aliases. Throughout the text we will refer to a forest angiosperm as a hardwood, dicot, broadleaf, and Magnoliophyta, the term introduced in this chapter. You should be comfortable with all four of these nearly interchangeable terms and be aware of the slight differences in meaning. With all the advantages and complexities, the North American dicots still yield all but the temperate forests to the gymnosperms.

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