By Paul J. Donald

Surgery of the cranium Base offers step by step descriptions of state-of-the-art complex surgeries for cranium base tumors, written through across the world popular surgeons who pioneered those methods. The certain narratives are built-in with over 1,000 illustrations--425 in complete color--including intraoperative pictures, MR photos, CT scans, radiographs, and line drawings. The participants' specialist counsel may help neurosurgeons and head and neck surgeons layout and enforce well-coordinated surgical assaults on cranium base lesions.A significant element of the ebook info particular ways through the anterior fossa, posterior fossa, and midline. relevant to the methodical studies of every strategy are knowledgeable analyses of anticipated effects and strength issues, as well as entire case effects, whilst to be had. extra chapters offer historical past info on surgical anatomy, radiology, and pathology and pathophysiology of cranium base tumors. Rounding out the insurance are specialist contributions on postoperative administration and reconstruction of the cranium base with surgical flaps and grafts.

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Cohesive nests of plump, polygonal cells are adjoined by intracellular bridges. Keratinization is not present in this section. ) sheets of plump, polygonal cells with abundant pink cytoplasm. Melanoma may be distinguished from squamous carcinoma by the absence of intercellular bridges. Less reliable features include the characteristic nuclear inclusions of melanoma and variably present cytoplasmic brown pigmentation. Immunohistochemistry is usually definitive in distinguishing these entities, with squamous cell carcinoma reactive lo cytokeratin and melanoma reactive to S-100 and HMB-45.

Melanoma. HMB-45, a "melanoma-specific" marker, intensely decorates individual tumor cells in this nasal mucosal melanoma. " The papillary growth pattern can be confused with a papillary carcinoma or atypical papilloma. The diagnosis may be initially missed without a high index of suspicion for this lesion. The identification and confirmation of melanoma is, however, relatively straightforward with modern immunohistochemical techniques. Definition. A metastasis is a secondary focus of tumor that has spread from an often distant primary site by lymphatic or vascular routes.

Olfactory neuroblastomas are sometimes graded hislologically on a scale of I (well differentiated) to IV (poorly differentiated). Some have found this grading system to have prognostic significance, whereas others have not. Differential Diagnosis. The differential diagnosis includes innumerable "small round cell'' tumors that occur in the sinonasal tract (43). Among the more common ones are malignant lymphoma. rhabdomyosarcoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, and malignant melanoma. Most often, these tumors can be distinguished by the use of immune stains.

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