By Bruce G. Trigger, Wilcomb E. Washburn

This booklet presents the 1st finished historical past of the local Peoples of North the US from their arrival within the western hemisphere to the current. It describes how local Peoples have handled the environmental range of North the United States and feature spoke back to the several eu colonial regimes and nationwide governments that experience verified themselves in contemporary centuries. It additionally examines the improvement of a pan-Indian id because the 19th century and gives a comparability no longer present in different histories of the way local Peoples have fared in Canada and the U.S..

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Extra resources for The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas, Volume 1, Part 2: North America

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The federal government expected that a few leaders could speak for all. In the case of the Arapahos, such an expectation was not far from the truth. Arapaho leaders had been serving as intermediaries between 'JJohnC. , 1958), 221. Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 Westward Expansion: Treaties & Reservations 33 their people and the Americans for a generation. They routinely solicited or levied "tolls" in the form of sugar and coffee from American travelers. American immigrants were a source of supplies and luxury items that groups on the central Plains had learned to crave.

In 1750 they numbered 9,000; after the smallpox epidemic of 1837, just under 150 remained. The Wichita groups also lost almost 90 percent of their population between the late seventeenth and late nineteenth centuries. In addition to the dramatic decline in population, there were other effects of the epidemics. Captives were increasingly taken in raids and these were adopted into families to replenish population losses. Marital restrictions were altered; for example, after the 1849 cholera epidemic, the Cheyennes relaxed rules of band exogamy.

The villagers had little to sell but their corn. Trappers and traders also penetrated the Plains north of the Platte and the adjacent Rocky Mountains. S. Army in 1823 and weakened. In addition, after the War of 1812, the British had withdrawn, making it essential for the villagers to stay on good terms with the Americans, from whom they could obtain guns. , 1950), 39, 42, 5 2 - 5 . See also Richard White, "The Winning of the West: The Expansion of the Western Sioux in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries," Journal ofAmerican History 65 (1978), 319—43.

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