By Mansoor Durrani, Grahame Boocock (auth.)
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Additional resources for Venture Capital, Islamic Finance and SMEs: Valuation, Structuring and Monitoring Practices in India
5 Summary The brief survey of possible funding gaps affecting smaller enterprises suggested that SMEs in the developed world could generally expect to receive funding if they have a commercially viable proposition. The banks are the principal source of funding and a lack of collateral might result in credit rationing in some cases. Innovative ﬁrms seeking to 34 Venture Capital, Islamic Finance and SMEs grow might be disadvantaged, but gaps in the market for risk capital are being ﬁlled by the VC sector or government-linked schemes.
The ﬁrst major enquiry into the activities of UK small ﬁrms was published in 1971 (Bolton, 1971). This Report concluded that SMEs still faced genuine disabilities in seeking funds (stemming from the information asymmetries and so on discussed above). Despite the signiﬁcant contribution of 3i in providing equity capital to SMEs, Bolton conﬁrmed the existence of an equity gap affecting ﬁrms trying to ﬁnd ‘sums below £250,000’, a considerable reduction in real terms over the period since MacMillan.
Yet again, the imposition of such targets appears to have had the unintended consequence of restricting the development Barriers to Growth in SMEs 27 of credit appraisal techniques in the private sector (Boocock and Wahab, 2001). The principal alternatives to bank ﬁnance in Malaysia are loans from ﬁnance companies or Government-sponsored bodies. The formal VC market is emerging and the Government supplies a large part of its investment pool. Informal risk capital has a long history within the Chinese community in Malaysia, although the operation of this market, as elsewhere, tends to be somewhat opaque.