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MPEG-4 is scheduled to become a standard in the end of 1998. 261 video compression standard that is designed for video communications over ISDN networks Liou91] Turletti93]. 261 can handle p 64 Kbps (where p = 1; 2; :::; 30) video streams and this is equal to the possible bandwidths in ISDN. 261 standard supports the following two video formats: Common Intermediate Format (CIF). 2 Video compression standards Overview of Video Compression Standards resolution of 180 144 pixels for the two chrominance parts (C and C ) of the video stream; R B Quarter-CIF (QCIF).

1: MPEG-1 Constraint Parameter Bit stream that conform to the CPB of MPEG-1. Furthermore, interlaced video streams, which are common in the television industry, are not easily converted to MPEG1; MPEG-2 is more suited for these interlaced video streams. Video streams of MPEG-2 are nevertheless compatible with MPEG-1. The MPEG-2 standard deals with di erent resolution video streams that are divided in pro les and levels. The lowest level format is 352 288 pixels (PAL format) and the highest is 1920 1152 (PAL format) pixels.

261 video stream is 30 frames per second. 3. A QCIF has 3 GOBs, while a CIF has 12 GOBs. Each GOB consist of 3 11 Macro Blocks (MB). A Macro Block is composed of 4 8 8 luminance blocks and two 8 8 chrominance blocks (C and C ). A macro block can be compared to an MCU in JPEG. 261 encoder can operate in two modes. In the intra-frame mode, every 8 8 block is DCT-transformed, linearly quantized, and sent to the video multiplexer. In the inter-frame mode, every 8 8 block is also DCT-transformed and linearly quantized, but the result is rst sent to a motion-compensator before it is sent to the video multiplexer.

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